Gegenprozesstheorie - Opponent-process theory. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Anwendung auf die Farbtheorie siehe. Emotionale Ereignisse lösen 2 konkurrierende Prozesse aus: A-Prozess: unmittelbar durch Ereignis hervorgerufen- Stärke& Dauer festgelegt. Allgemeine Psychologie 1: Die Opponent-Process-Theorie - Ist eine Habituationstheorie von Solomon und Corbit (), bezieht sich auf emotionale.
Opponent Prozess TheorieGegenprozesstheorie - Opponent-process theory. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Anwendung auf die Farbtheorie siehe. Die Gegner-Prozess-Theorie ist ein psychologisches und neurologisches Modell, das eine Vielzahl von Verhaltensweisen berücksichtigt, einschließlich des Farbsehens. Dieses Modell wurde erstmals von Ewald Hering, einem deutschen Physiologen. Now that theyre 11 Theorie der Gegenregulation-Opponent Process Theory Antinozizeptive Mechanismen Analgesie Opioid KoppertW.
Opponent Process Theory How Does the Opponent Process Theory Work? VideoOpponent-process theory
Over time, however, the rush drives them rather than stresses them. Another example of the opponent process in healthy situations concerns people who watch horror movies.
Many people find them disturbing in the beginning, but after time, they enjoy watching them. The opponent process theory manifests itself in healing and pain relief.
As pain reduces or healing continues, the negative feelings that people initially felt begin to subside, and they start to experience more pleasant feelings.
Researchers from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China examined the link between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in Chinese adolescents and college students.
They found that the method to enact suicide, based on the opponent process theory, suggested that repeated exposure to emotional triggers would shift over time.
The initial pleasure was short-lived, and as the opposite response became stronger, the people were unable to elicit the same reaction from the emotion as they had before.
In other words, the original reason for wanting to commit suicide — wishing to remove pain — is overshadowed by no longer fearing death.
While the opponent process theory may offer some insight on job satisfaction, there has not been enough research to indicate its effectiveness in professional and on-the-job settings.
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For example, red creates a positive or excitatory response, while green creates a negative or inhibitory response.
These responses are controlled by opponent neurons, which are neurons that have an excitatory response to some wavelengths and an inhibitory response to wavelengths in the opponent part of the spectrum.
The opponent process theory explains the perceptual phenomena of negative afterimages. Have you ever noticed how after staring at an image for an extended period of time, you may see a brief afterimage in complementary colors after looking away?
You can see this effect in action by trying out the following demonstration. So, how does opponent process theory explain afterimages? Staring at the white and red image for 30 to 60 seconds caused the white and red opponent cells to become fatigued.
When you shift your focus to a blank surface, those cells are no longer able to fire, so only the opposing black and green cells continue to fire in response to visual stimuli.
As a result, you will see a brief afterimage that is black and green instead of white and red. For example, some emotional opposing pairs include:.
However, an hour after getting the award, you may feel a bit sad. This secondary reaction is often deeper and longer lasting than the initial reaction, but it gradually disappears.
Another example: small children becoming irritable or crying on Christmas a few hours after opening presents. Solomon thought of this as the nervous system trying to return to a normal equilibrium.
After repeated exposure to a stimulus, eventually the initial emotion wanes, and the secondary reaction intensifies.
You can test out the opponent process theory with an experiment that creates a negative afterimage illusion. Stare at the image below for 20 seconds, and then look at the white space that follows the image and blink.
Note the color of the afterimage you see. The afterimage should have the opposite color of what you just stared at because of a phenomenon known as cone fatigue.
In the eye, we have cells called cones, which are receptors in the retina. These cells help us see color and detail. There are three different types :.
When you stare at a specific color for too long, the cone receptors responsible for detecting that color become tired, or fatigued. The cone receptors that detect the opposing colors are still fresh, however.
For example, the opposite of fear is relief, and the opposite of pain is pleasure. An example of this is when you are awarded a prize.
However, a little while after receiving it, you may experience opposing feelings of sadness. While this secondary reaction will eventually disappear, it often lasts longer than the first emotion.
After repeated exposure to a stimulus, the first emotion always fades, giving way to the secondary feeling which intensifies.
The opponent process theory, along with its additional concepts contributed by Solomon, is a great way to explain what people experience when they go through drug addiction.
This eventually leads to the person getting no positive feelings out of taking the drug. The person addicted to the drugs is now taking them to avoid the emotions they feel when in withdrawal.
This is because motivation and emotions are the most significant driving forces when it comes to addiction. One of the best ways of controlling the emotions a person experiences when addicted to drugs is by first maintaining control of the adverse effects.
This will push their need for a motive forward, encouraging them to look beyond the negative emotions toward the positive outcome that lies ahead.
Science and psychology typically offer opposing theories that address different aspects of people as human beings.
However, now and then, they come together to form revolutionary ideas regarding the intricate inner workings that make us who we are.
In other words, a stimulus that initially inspires displeasure will likely be followed by a pleasurable after-feeling and vice versa.
The second important aspect of this theory is that after repeated exposure to the same emotional event, the State A reaction will begin to weaken, whereas the State B reaction will strengthen in intensity and duration.
Thus, over time, the after-feeling can become the prevailing emotional experience associated with a particular stimulus event.
One example of this phenomenon is how, for some people, an initial unpleasant fear aroused by a good roller-coaster ride becomes, over time, an enjoyable and much sought-after experience.
According to this theory, a primary a-process— directly activated by an emotional event—is followed by an opponent process, the secondary b-process, which gives rise to the opposite emotional state.
In the first few exposures to an emotion-eliciting event, such an opponent process can act to return an organism to a state of emotional homeostasis or neutrality following an intensely emotional episode.